SKKN Thiết kế bài tập Nghe hiểu bản tin Tiếng Anh thực tế

SKKN Thiết kế bài tập Nghe hiểu bản tin Tiếng Anh thực tế

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Điều kiện hoàn cảnh tạo ra sáng kiến:
Trong bối cảnh toàn cầu hóa hiện nay, tiếng Anh, đặc biệt là kĩ năng nghe là một trong
những điều kiện quan trọng giúp con người tiếp cận thế giới, hội nhập với xã hội. Trong
khi đó, học sinh trung học cũng nhận ra tầm quan trọng của việc học kỹ năng nghe.
Hiện nay, việc sử dụng tài liệu thực tế trong giảng dạy môn Tiếng Anh, đặc biệt là kĩ
năng giao tiếp ngày càng được chú ý và áp dụng rộng rãi. Xuất phát chính những
nguyên nhân này, chúng tôi đề xuất giải pháp nhằm nâng cao chất lượng dạy và học kĩ
năng nghe thông qua đề tài “Thiết kế bài tập Nghe hiểu Tiếng Anh thực tế”.
II. Mô tả giải pháp:
1. Mô tả giải pháp trước khi tạo ra sáng kiến
Phương pháp dạy kĩ năng Nghe trong các lớp học tiếng truyền thống ở các trường phổ
thông thường chỉ là nghe và làm các bài tập trong sách giao khoa. Phương pháp này
không mang lại hứng thú cho học sinh, do các bài nghe trong sách giáo khoa có nội
dung xa lạ hoặc không mời mẻ để kích thích nhu cầu nghe và tìm hiểu trong học sinh.
Từ đó, sự cải thiện về kĩ năng Nghe và hiểu biết chung của học sinh không rõ rệt trong
quá trình học. Trong bối cảnh trường THPT chuyên Lê Hồng Phong nói riêng và giáo
dục Việt Nam nói chung, việc dạy kĩ năng Nghe đã được chú trọng và đề cao hơn. Cùng
với đó trong thời đại công nghệ thông tin, các tài liệu nghe thực tế sẵn có và phong phú,
có thể sử dụng mang lại nhiều lợi ích và hiệu quả trong việc dạy và học kĩ năng Nghe
2. Mô tả giải pháp sau khi có sáng kiến: (trọng tâm)
Sau nghiên cứu, người nghiên cứu nhận ra cả học sinh và giáo viên tại trường THPT
Chuyên Lê Hồng Phong đều có nhu cầu cải thiện kĩ năng Nghe. Nhận thức được những
ưu điểm của tài liệu thực tế, đa số học sinh và giáo viên đều xem tài liệu thực tế là một
trong số những tài liệu tiềm năng cho học sinh THPT luyện tập kĩ năng Nghe. Trong
cuộc sống hàng ngày, học sinh thường tiếp cận với tài liệu nghe thực tế qua các phương
tiện truyền thông như các chương trình truyền hình TV và các trang web trên Internet.
Những nguồn tài liệu này, đặc biệt là các trang web trên Intemet được sử dụng bởi giáo
viên để làm tài liệu cho các bài giảng kĩ năng Nghe trên lớp. Mặc dù vậy, từ vựng, tốc
2
độ nói. thời gian tìm kiếm, thiết kế tài liệu và khó khăn trong cơ sở vật chất là những trở
ngại cho các thầy và trò khi tiếp cận với loại tài liệu này.
Với những nhu cầu đó của thầy và trò, cùng những điểm hạn chế của tài liệu thực tế
trong sử dụng thử nghiệm, người nghiên cứu đề xuất một số các giải pháp khắc phục
với hy vọng giúp học sinh và giáo viên thấy việc học và dạy kĩ năng Nghe hiệu quả và
hứng thú.
III. Hiệu quả do sáng kiến đem lại:
1. Hiệu quả kinh tế (Giá trị làm lợi tính thành tiền):

2. Hiệu quả về mặt xã hội

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Statement of research problem and rationale of the study
The process of learning any languages is comprised of four different skills, namely
listening, speaking, reading and writing. These four skills are inextricably
intertwined, and they always complement one another. Therefore, they should be
treated on equal terms so that learners can be proficient at using languages.
However, it is not rare to see that English authentic listening materials are largely
marginalized in high schools in Vietnam. In most high schools, English teachers
virtually make light of listening skills, let alone authentic listening materials. As
the ultimate target of these schools is to enable students to pass the entrance
English test for university, which do not include listening tasks, students mainly
concentrate on other skills and realms such as lexico- grammar and reading. The
recent test structure substantially reduces the time and the opportunities for nonspecialized students to be exposed to authentic learning. In gifted high schools,
authenticity in listening materials is also limited. Although listening skill is more
meticulously focused on, teaching and learning this skill are still confined to the
zeitgeist of utilizing test-oriented materials such as IELTS and FCE practice
books. These reference books often provide very scripted, stilted and second-rate
recordings with an air of inauthenticity. Generally, Vietnamese students are
suffering from a widespread shortage of genuine listening materials, giving rise to
many serious repercussions. Without the ability to listen effectively, messages are
likely to be misunderstood. As a result, communication breaks down and the
sender of message can easily become frustrated or irritated. If there is one skill that
learners need to master, that is listening. Despite its importance, listening skill has
secured only a tenuous position in Vietnam’ s curricula, leading to a woeful lack of
authentic listening materials within Vietnamese academic milieu.
The scarcity of English authentic listening materials at high schools is nothing
other than a hindrance to students’ receptive ability to the language. Because of the
lack of exposure to authentic materials, students will encounter numerous
difficulties to comprehend them including news, films and music videos. Since
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students are only accustomed to recorded listening tapes, it simultaneously means
that they practice their listening skill in an inauthentic manner, with formal
speeches, consistent speed and similar accent. However, in authentic materials, it
varies from speed, accent and expressions such as slangs and idioms.
Consequently, several students will find it hard to catch their gist and overall
meaning.
Another repercussion is that students are likely to be unnatural and appear too
academic in daily situations. Indeed, too formal and ingenuine English teaching
and learning programs in Vietnamese academic environment are negligently
jettisoning the importance of colloquial phrases and expressions in daily
conversations. Additionally, these programs fail to erect a sense of daily normality
in the process of learning English. In a worse case, students will run the risk of
misunderstanding or mutual intelligibility, even after graduating from high schools.
Therefore, it is strongly recommended that teachers should integrate teaching
listening to authentic materials into the curriculum. Each topic of content in
coursebooks should be complemented with videos or listening records in real- life
situations that are related to the studying topics, so that students can get used to the
accents, expressions and the way words are spoken. After each listening material,
teachers are responsible for checking the understanding of students by asking
questions. This strategy can be applied to promote students’ general understanding
of colloquial English, enhance the ability of students to acquire information
through auditory medium and indirectly improve students’ communication when
facing a daily situation.
1.2. Aims
This study is conducted with a view to recommending high school teachers
potential news pages to design their own authentic listening exercises for in-class
lessons, as well as giving them a general idea of designing those exercises via
sample listening activities designed from the recommended sources.
The aims are expected to be fulfilled by answering the following question:
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What are proper news sources for designing listening exercises and how to
design listening activities for those authentic materials?
1.3. Scope of the study
Due to time constraint, the research merely focused on designing common
types of listening exercises based on authentic materials, namely short-answer
question, Gap filling, Multiple matching and True-False.
1.4. Significance of the study
After the study, the researcher hopes to alleviate teachers’ confusion, hence
hesitation when it comes to designing their own listening tasks for in-class
activities. Once they are more willing to create their own authentic listening
exercises, teachers may become less reliant on test-oriented books. Moreover, this
change in attitude and teaching practice, hopefully, can make a minor contribution
to directing teaching listening skills trend in high schools, especially those for
gifted students towards attaching academic lessons to practical circumstances, so
that students can be better equipped and more confident during daily
communications with English speakers.
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CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
In this part, an overview of literature background related to the study is exposed,
laying the solid foundation for the next parts. Key concepts of news, types of
listening tasks in some international English proficiency exams and national exam
for the gifted are meticulously explained.
2.1. Different types of authentic materials
2.1.1. News
News is a term with multiple meanings defined differently from person to person.
According to Oxford Learner’s Dictionaries news (noun) is defined as follows:
• new information about something that has happened recently.
• reports of recent events that appear in newspapers or on television or radio.
• the news: a regular television or radio broadcast of the latest news.
• a person, thing or event that is considered to be interesting enough to be
reported as news.
In general, the definition of news items is dependent on:
• The size of community (Reader).
• Periodicity of the publication (Weekly, Daily).
• Social character and economic base of the community.
• Focus of attention or emphasis of the community.
2.1.2. Talk shows
A talk show is a television programming or radio programming genre structured
around the act of spontaneous conversation. A talk show is distinguished from
other television programs by certain common attributes. In a talk show, one person
(or group of people or guests) discusses various topics put forth by a talk show
host. This discussion can be in the form of an interview or a simple conversation
about important social, political or religious issues and events.
2.1.3. Podcasts
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A podcast is a recording of audio discussion on a specific topic, like business or
travel, that can be listened to.
Podcasts have some typical features as follows:
• They can be any length, from a 1- minute news snippet, to a 3-hour in-depth
interview.
• They can be any frequency, from daily to monthly
• They can be any format, from simple solo shows up to mammoth, multiperson audio dramas
• They can cover ANY topic, many of which would never make it onto radio
2.2. Listening tasks in exams
2.2.1. IELTS listening tasks
2.2.1.1. Format
Section 1: conversation between 2 speakers about everyday situations.
They will usually be making some kind of booking (e.g. at a restaurant or travel
agents) or requesting information (e.g. about a membership to a sports club or an
education course).
This is the easiest section. Speaker talks quite slowly, making pauses. The key
information is usually repeated.
Section 2: a monologue about everyday situations.
Speaker talks quite slowly, but makes less pauses than in previous section.
A variety of topics come up, but common things to hear about are explanations of
tours, such as where you can go, how to book, them and how much they cost, or
someone on the radio giving advice about something or explaining some charity
work they have been involved in.
Section 3: a conversation between up to four people set in an educational or
training context, e.g. a university tutor and a student discussing an assignment.
This section is harder than the two previous, speakers discuss topics at a faster pace
and sometimes use advanced vocabulary.
Section 4: a monologue on academic subject.
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It is the most difficult section. There is no break in the middle, the speaker talks
quite quickly and uses a wide range of vocabulary.
2.2.1.2. Types of questions and purposes
– Multiple choice: used to test a wide range of skills. The test taker may be
required to have a detailed understanding of specific points or an overall
understanding of the main points of the listening text.
– Short-answer questions: focuses on the ability to listen for concrete facts, such
as places, prices or times, within the listening text
– Sentence completion: Sentence completion focuses on the ability to identify the
key information in a listening text. Test takers have to understand functional
relationships such as cause and effect.
– Notes, summary, diagram, table or chart completion: This focuses on the
main points which a listener would naturally record in this type of situation
– Matching: assesses the skill of listening for detail and whether a test taker can
understand information given in a conversation on an everyday topic, such as the
different types of hotel or guest house accommodation. It also assesses the ability
to follow a conversation between two people. It may also be used to assess test
takers’ ability to recognise relationships and connections between facts in the
listening text.
– Plan, map, diagram labeling: This type of task assesses the ability to
understand, for example, a description of a place, and to relate this to a visual
representation. This may include being able to follow language expressing spatial
relationships and directions (e.g. straight on/through the far door).
2.2.2. TOEFL
2.2.2.1. Format
In total, candidates listen to four to six lectures and two to three conversations.
Each lecture lasts three to five minutes and comes with six questions, while each
conversation lasts about three minutes and comes with five questions. They will
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hear each audio clip only once. The Listening section measures test takers’ ability
to understand spoken English from English-speaking countries.
2.2.2.2. Types of questions
There are three question types: standard multiple choice, multiple answer, and
Replay in order to :
– Ask for Main Idea: As each listening passage starts, the narrator will inform you
of the main topic of the academic talk or dialogue so you have a slight idea of what
to expect. No matter what the topic is, you should be able to understand what the
main idea of the passage is.
– Ask for Detail: The detail type of listening question asks you to identify factual
information that is stated directly in the passage. Usually the information is given
to support or expand or provide an example related to the main idea.
– Ask for purposes: Dialogues, rather than academic talks, mostly use this type.
The prompt generally asks why one speaker visits the other speaker. So you need
to be able to understand why the dialogue, what its purpose is, is happening.
You’re looking for the overall reason for the talk, instead of any detail.
– Ask for organization: This listening question type will ask a “why” or “how”
question and is more common to be found after hearing an academic talk. You are
expected to understand how the passage is organized, why it is presented to you in
a certain way. Sometimes the question will ask why something was included in the
talk when it seems to be unimportant or off-topic. It was included for a reason; you
need to be able to figure out that reason. You might also be asked how something
functions in relation to what is said before or after it. Maybe it’s being used to
signal the change to a subtopic or used to set off an example.
– Ask for implication: Based on what you hear in the listening passage, you should
be able to decide what logically might happen next, or be able to reason what the
speaker means – what is implied – by saying or asking something. For this type of
question, it’s the opinions, feelings, thoughts of the speaker you need to be able to
understand and not just the factual information. It’s a difficult type, but it’s also not
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used very often.
2.2.3. CAE
2.2.3.1. Format
Part 1 (6 questions) of the paper requires candidates to listen to three brief
excerpts of conversation and then answer two questions about each of the
recordings.
Part 2 (8 questions) features a 3-minute monologue, with candidates being
required to complete a number of sentence-completion problems using information
gleaned from the recording.
Part 3 (6 questions) involves a 4-minute recording of a conversation featuring
multiple speakers. Candidates will be required to answer questions about both the
information discussed in the conversation and the speakers themselves (attitude,
tone, opinion, etc.).
Part 4 (10 questions), which consists of a series of five, 30-second monologues all
discussing a central theme. Two tasks are associated with this part.
2.2.3.2. Types of questions
– Sentence completion: listening for specific information, stated opinion.
– Multiple-choice: listening for feeling, attitude, opinion, purpose, function,
agreement, course of action, gist, detail, etc.
– Matching: listening for gist, attitude, opinion, main points, speaker purpose and
feeling; interpreting context.
2.2.4. CPE
2.2.4.1. Format
The C2 Proficiency Listening paper has four parts. For each part candidates have
to listen to a recorded text or texts and answer some questions. You hear each
recording twice.
Part 1: Three short, unrelated recordings lasting approximately 1 minute each.
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Part 2: A monologue or prompted monologue lasting 3–4 minutes. The questions
are a series of incomplete sentences.
Part 3: A recording with interacting speakers lasting 3–4 minutes.
Part 4: Five short, themed monologues, of approximately 35 seconds each. There
are two multiple-matching tasks. Each multiple-matching task requires the
selection of the five correct options from a list of eight.
2.2.4.2. Types of questions
– Multiple choice – 3 options: listening for gist, detail, function, purpose, topic,
speaker, addressee, feeling, attitude, opinion, etc.
– Sentence completion: listening for specific information, stated opinion.
– Multiple choice – 4 options: listening for opinion, gist, detail, inference.
– Multiple matching: listening for gist, attitude, main points, interpreting context.
2.2.5. Vietnam National Exam for gifted students
The English test in National exam for gifted students usually consists of 3 to 4
parts. Candidates’ language proficiency is expected to be at C1 and C2 level.
Common question types:
– Note completion (similar to section 1 in IELTS)
– True/ False questions: Listening to a conversation and deciding whether a

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